Vacation coming soon, back to Disced


I’ve been busy working and living my life so much so that this blog has taken a toll in terms of content lately, but fear not, I’m totally aware of this and plan on fixing it come July 2024.

My goal is to restart/finish the disassembly of Disced and release a new version of it finally (after compiling it on an Actual Maxam ROM).

Until then, please review this >

Disassembling my old code part 9 – Assembling the code


Posted in Disassemble, Disced, MAXAM | Leave a comment

Video: First looks at the New Dandanator Elite + from Rancanuo team


I reviewed the original Dandanator Elite + a few years ago here

But time has moved on and Rancanuo team have developed a cool new Dandanator Elite + with new cartridges that look and feel straight from Amstrad CPC.

Take a look !

the new Dandanator Elite + is available from

The cartridges are also available here

I purchased mine to see what had changed between it and the previous generation Dandanator Elite +,

take a look at the review and please share your thoughts,

Please note in the video I state that the old cartridges will work in the new Dandanator Elite +, that’s incorrect, they are not compatible !

Cheers Niall.


Posted in CPC 464, Dandanator, Dandanator Elite +, New Dandanator Elite + | 2 Comments

Video: 2 CPC 6128’s born hours apart


I blogged about this yesterday and you can read all about it here.

Part of my research into this involved me chatting with Juan and asking him to put together a video explaining and showing more about the 2 CPC’s. He was very helpful and sent me 3 videos with loads of details and awesome content. I’ve merged them together in this video and hopefully it does justice to this story. Thanks Juan !

Posted in CPC 6128, twins | Leave a comment

A great story about twin CPC 6128’s most likely manufactured in the same factory hours apart


I’m a member of many Facebook groups dedicated to Amstrad computers, and in one of those groups called Amigos y Usuarios de Amstrad which I think means friends and users of Amstrad in Spanish, I spotted a post by a very nice guy called Juan Giovanni Ciller, and it caught my eye immediately. This is one of the most interesting things I’ve been involved with in the Amstrad scene in a while so I had to blog it. I hope you enjoy the story.

Basically he had purchased two different CPC 6128‘s over a period of time, months apart actually and he just happened to notice that the serial numbers were nearly identical, only 13 digits apart !!

Here’s a screenshot of that first post (in Spanish) with the translation below that.

and here is a closeup of the 2 CPC 6128 serial numbers,

  • 5326910879
  • 5326910892

Notice how both have a Version F sticker on the rear, and the text on the serial number sticker is in French. These CPC’s were manufactured in Korea.

What are the odds of that ! This was so interesting, as it could give us a look at how consistent (or not) the manufacture of these devices was back in the late 80’s.

I responded to the post and asked Juan to take more photos of the inside so we could clearly see (or hopefully see) some common traits of these 2 brothers. Juan was very obliging !

Here’s our initial conversation.

After that post, he modified his original post and showed more details of the two computers from the inside, how cool is that !

The motherboards

Here are the 2 CPC’s open, showing the motherboards.

This is such a cool photo, you can clearly see that they look nearly identical, maybe even the same person put them together, who knows. What we do know is they were definetly manufactured in the same factory as some of the parts are ‘in series’ meaning that they were pulled from a batch.

The Floppy disc drive motors

Juan very nicely posted more pictures of those similarities such as these Floppy disc Drive motors with a part number of MMA-6U2LEP, both manufactured on the 10th of July, 1986.

This means that when the assembler put these computers together, they pulled parts from a common source, which is confirmed by those exact same dates on the FDD motors.

The stepper motors

Next, we can see 2 more parts connected to the Floppy Disc Drives (FDD), I believe this is the Stepper Motor which adjusts the read/write head to move up and down the inserted floppy disc.

The only difference on these are the serial numbers, everything else is identical.

The motherboard serial numbers

Here we can see the 2 serial numbers on the motherboards themselves, obviously they need to be different, but we are hoping that they are also very similar.

  • K326830507
  • K326830445

and yes they are similar, the K is probably for a Korean factory. These motherboards were manufactured 62 units apart !


The keyboards

Below we can see the two serial numbers of the keyboards.

The date code is slightly different but everything else is the same !


However there are also some differences.

Next, we have a closeup of the date of manufacture of the plastic cases, these are not identical. Someone has written what looks like, and it might be the same person writing this, or not, i’m not a hand writing expert, from first glance it looks like different styles of numbers.

  • 8.16
  • 819

on them, and i’ve no idea what that signifies. There are date codes on the plastic, but they are hard to read.

From what I can make out the case on the left has the following date codes:

  • null
  • 85/86
  • 5/6
  • 2
  • 8

and the case on the right has

  • null
  • 85/86
  • 5/6
  • 2
  • 6

If someone out there knows what these numbers mean then let me know. I’m sure the 85/86 means it was around 1986and the others probably signify the month/day of manufacture.

The bottom CPC 6128 is missing the Amstrad 40010 Gate Array, and it has a different chip top right (NEC versus Zilog)

I noticed in his Facebook post that ‘one works’ which is most likely the one that still has the 40010 Gate Array chip inside, a previous owner may have removed the chip on the other one, I’ll ask him to confirm and update this post once I know more.

We can also see that whoever marked these parts did so with different coloured pens. What does that mean ? we don’t know. Could it be from the person who assembled the CPC or infact, from the person who assembled the motherboard, and were these done in different places, we do not know.

Aside from the pen colour, the parts below differ based on

  • 1366DK
  • 1666DK

If anyone knows what this means, let me know.

More info (from the videos)

I chatted with Juan on Facebook chat and luckily he understood English, and not only that he was very willing to tell me more. I asked him could he video the twin CPC’s and he sent me three videos explaining the story and showing them in detail.

In a nutshell here’s what happened based on Juan’s own words in the videos.

The first one was bought early 2022, from Ebay, paid about 100 euro, belt in the disc drive was gone but the rest is fine, a bit dirty but OK otherwise

The second one was bought in December 2022, at a flea market in Toulouse, France. He was surprised, to see it there so he bought it ! He cleaned this one up as it was very very dirty and some of the keys were stuck.

‘I have to save it’.

This one cost him 50 Euro.

Both of these CPC’s are French versions with the Azerty keyboard. I’m not sure why Juan (who I assume is Spanish) wanted French versions of the CPC 6128, I have yet to get that clarified.

A couple of weeks ago he tried to repair them. And it was at this point he realised that the serial numbers were nearly identical. What are the odds of that !

In the below photo we can see a clip from the first video that Juan made for me describing his story purchasing the 2 CPC 6128’s. The keyboards look different in colour, one is discolored and the case is scratched, but these two CPC’s are twins !

so what do you think of this story ? are these CPC’s from 1986 really twins, were they made in the same factory and on the same day, let us know!


niall (and Juan)

Posted in Amstrad, CPC 6128, twins | 3 Comments

Video: First looks at the Alcon 2020 game on Amstrad CPC


Here’s my ‘straight out of the box’ review of a hardware scrolling and awesome audio solution on an Amstrad CPC via a cartridge and associated adaptor (for Amstrad CPC). All the info is in the CPCWiki topics:


Here’s my video below, what an awesome game and awesome product !

Posted in Alcon 2020 game, CPC 664 | Leave a comment

Video: Ghosts n Goblins game via the RGB2HDMI on Amstrad CPC 464


This video came via a comment on about scrolling in the Ghosts n Goblins game when using the RGB2HDMI adaptor. So take a look and tell me what you think

Posted in CPC 464, RGB2HDMI | Leave a comment

Disassembling my old code part 9 – Assembling the code


This is part 9 of a blog series I’m doing to catalog some of the programs I wrote back in 1988 on the Amstrad CPC 6128, starting with a disc sector editor I wrote called Disced. I’m doing this because I like doing it, it brings back memories of how I started my career with computers back in the 80’s, long before the Internet (as we know it today) or mobile phones.

Below are a list of previous blog posts on this subject.

  • Disassembling my old code part 1 – Getting started with WinAPE
  • Disassembling my old code part 2 – Setting screen mode & Soft 968
  • Disassembling my old code part 3 – Text operations
  • Disassembling my old code part 4 – Set cursor position & disc cache
  • Disassembling my old code part 5 – Get Shift key and set translate
  • Disassembling my old code part 6 – Processing disc activities
  • Disassembling my old code part 7 – Drawing rectangles
  • Disassembling my old code part 8 – Processing HEX in the left pane
  • Disassembling my old code part 9 – Assembling the code <—- you are here

First of all apologies for the delay in updating this series, I’ve been very busy with real work and other things have taken priority. Don’t worry though, if you are following this series I do intend to finish it no matter what it takes and no matter how long it takes, so please be patient. We’ll get there in the end and hopefully both you and I will have learned a few things along the way.

Looking at the code I currently have in Notepad ++ I’m unsure if MAXAM would even let me assemble it in it’s current configuration, it’s been THAT long since I actually assembled any Z80 code that I’m obviously out of touch with it.

I won’t tackle MAXAM today, but I will attempt to make corrections to the current edited code using the built in Assembler in WinAPE. So let’s get started, and this is a good time to see if it would even compile in it’s current unfinished state.

Using the WinAPE Assembler

In WinAPE, click on the Assembler menu option and select Show Assembler F3.

The Assembler window appears, and as we have not used it before it’s blank.

Click on File and load the current version of your saved assembly source code.

Now comes the fun part, as I’m out of practice obviously the current code has some issues. So let’s try and fix that. To start off, click Assemble, then click on Assemble within that drop down menu within the WinAPE Z80 Assembler window, this should highlight any issues it has with the source code.

straight away we can see some problems found, so let’s step through them one by one,

The first problem is in Line 2, and it becomes obvious when you look at how it interprets the website URL. Obviously it doesn’t like the colon, so let’s fix that.

Using the edit ability in the Assembler, move your cursor to the problem and correct the mistake, in my case I changed the URL from to simply

To prove that this has solved it, Assemble the code again. And sure enough after Assembling the code again, the Line 2 – Bad Syntax error is no longer present !

Next we need to find out what is wrong with Line 652 – Undefined Symbol. To speed that up, let’s use CTRL+G to go to the line number 652.

Tip:  You can also double click on the line that has an error in the bottom pane and it will automatically go to that line number in the upper pane.

The remaining errors are all Undefined Symbol so I think (or hope at least) that I can ignore that for now. I can also see that from line 652 on-wards the code appears untouched or unfinished (i.e. it’s the direct dump from my original disassembly and therefore some text has not yet been converted to Ascii.

Running assembled code

For fun I decided to try Assembling the code and then running it. If you click on Run it will Assemble the code first and inject it to the memory space it should be at in this case &9000.

Next, by calling &9000 in the CPC from basic after assembling/run the code,

and pressing enter, it just hung with a blank screen, yikes. I needed to determine what broke it so I compared known good code (by running disced.bas) to my ‘broken’ assembled code.

I placed a RET (C9) before the disk_processing_activities function and that worked fine so i know the hang is caused in the disk_processing_activities function or via something it in turn calls.

To help me figure it out I compared a screenshot of the code in memory from the Assembly attempt (right hand side screenshot), to a known good working disced.bas injected code (left hand side screenshot), there were several differences marked here.

So that leaves me with some minor edits that I can make to the code, the most obvious is 2 remove the 2 added spaces that appear in the code in-front of the Disced title text, so let’s try that. I can also see that the (c) symbol is not showing correctly in the source code.

Here’s the code side-by-side again after I removed the 2 spaces and re-assembled it, at least it now matches up, but again the addresses to some of the other functions is way off, so I need to dig deeper.

At the start of the disk_processing_activities there a mention of initial_cursor_position and that address in the good code was &9626, so I used my comparing trick (take a screenshot of the area with known good code, and then compare that screenshot with the assembled code).

At this point I’m not sure what the issue is, but I can see that everything from &961A is different in the assembled code so I need to look at the source code again.

Looking at it makes it clear where the problems are, after the initial “Exit DISCED Y/N” text, the remaining ‘code’ is gibberish, in other words I haven’t converted it yet to it’s real ‘code’ and/or ‘text’.

We’ll deal with that in the next part, until then, adios !



Posted in assemble, Disassemble, Disced, MAXAM, WinApe | Leave a comment

Video: Resetting a Dandanator after it was loaded with a 512kb game


This video is a direct result of a comment I got where a user (Mark) had problems resetting his Dandanator Mini after it was loaded with the Sword of Ianna. That game uses up the entire 512kb ROM and auto-launches as soon as you start the Amstrad CPC. 

Resetting the Dandanator using the code provided in the ROM Generator software was tricky, in 10 times I tried it, I only got it to reset a few times. It seems that the USB button sometimes works, sometimes not, it’s flakey. I’m not quite sure why it works (or doesn’t work) the way it does, and I don’t think it’s my setup or my USB cable as reprogramming the Dandanator works every time otherwise. This is the only function on the Dandanator software that behaves this way for me.

Hopefully this video helps you to get it working. I also cover how to re-install the Sword of Ianna back on the Dandanator (full 512KB Rom game).

You can download the Sword of Ianna here –

Posted in Dandanator, The Sword Of Ianna | 2 Comments

Video: First looks at the DES (Dandanator Entertainment System) for Amstrad CPC


I’ve been using Dandanators for a few years now and I love them, their simplicity makes loading games very easy. I heard about a competing product called DES which uses the same hardware and software to work with the cartridges, but which is incompatible with the other Dandanators. It’s like they were 2 separate projects.

Anyhow, I ordered and paid for a DES system and it took some time to arrive, when it did I decided to do a video about it, hopefully I covered most aspects.

Some questions to my viewers:

1. What do you think about the product compared to other Dandanators or a DDI5 or an M4 ?

2. What (if anything) would you have changed about it if YOU were marketing/selling the DES ?

also, as a side note Jason Brooks your Dandanator mini makes a guest appearance in this video

Posted in Dandanator, DES | Leave a comment

Video: First looks at the Amstrad SSA 1 for CPC 464


In this video I took a close look at the Amstrad SSA 1 for CPC 464 explaining some of it’s main features.

The Amstrad SSA-1 is a Speech Synthesiser & Stereo Amplifier including speakers but it’s only compatible with the CPC 464.

Here’s the video:

In the video I also referred to the SSA-1 software (a basic file and a BIN file) and you can download that software from a few places such as here. Below is the BASIC listing in full.

10 ssa1%=&FBEE: size%=&1434
20 d%=INP(ssa1%) AND &C0
30 IF d%<>&80 THEN 70
40 OUT ssa1%,4
50 d%=INP(ssa1%) AND &C0 
60 IF d%=0 THEN 80
70 PRINT:PRINT"SSA1 not operational":PRINT:END 
100 PRINT: PRINT "`S``S``A1 Software already installed.`": PRINT
110 |ECHO,0: END
120 IF ERR=28 THEN 140
130 PRINT"Loader terminated: BASIC error";ERR;"at line";ERL: END
160 PRINT "Program length is ";HEX$(size%,4);" Hex"
170 PRINT: PRINT"Enter loading address, or just "
180 LINE INPUT " ENTER for top of memory > "; base$
190 IF LEN(base$)=0 THEN base=HIMEM-size%: GOTO 220
200 base=VAL(base$)
210 IF (base<16384) OR (base>HIMEM-size%-1) THEN PRINT :PRINT"Insufficient memory":GOTO 170
220 CLS: PRINT"Loading...."
230 FOR i=1 TO 5:READ ap(i): NEXT
240 PRINT CHR$(23)+CHR$(0);
250 INK 3,1
260 ORIGIN 320,48
270 DATA 27,7,62,53,4 
280 DATA -1,112,20,116,16,208,40,128,20,116,-36,144,80,144,96,176,120,208,80,224,0,224,-112,192,110,152,88,80,32,0,0,0
290 DATA -120,208,112,268,106,304,100,320,90,334,82,344,74,348,0,350
300 DATA-80,224,72,288,88,304,106,304
310 DATA-32,192,52,208,76,208,96,192,76,176,52,176,32,192
320 DATA-64,80,56,96
330 DATA-120,224,132,232,140,230,142,192,132,128,120,128,108,140
340 DATA-1,290,72,288,-80,144,72,64,999,0
350 side=1 :GOSUB 640:x=54:y=192:GOSUB 700
360 RESTORE 280:x=0
370 side=-1:GOSUB 640:x=-74:y=192:GOSUB 700
380 DATA ap,ap,ap,oy,ap,oy,ap,cy,cy,stop
390 ORIGIN 320,124
400 x=50:y=8:xt=25:yt=4:xb=23:yb=6:onn=20:off=0
410 PRINT CHR$(23)+CHR$(1);
420 xt(1)=xt:yt(1)=yt:xb(1)=xb:yb(1)=yb
430 MEMORY base-1 
440 LOAD "!ssa1.bin",base
470 start=base+(PEEK(base)+PEEK(base+1)*256)
480 CALL start
490 LOCATE 1,23:PRINT"Load complete": INK 3,26
500 READ a$:IF VAL(a$)>0 THEN t=TIME:WHILE t+10*VAL(a$)>TIME:WEND:GOTO 500
510 IF a$="stop"THEN NEW: |SPOFF: END
520 IF UPPER$(a$)="CX" THEN xt=xt-4:xb=xb-4
530 IF UPPER$(a$)="OX" THEN xt=xt+4:xb=xb+4
540 IF UPPER$(a$)="CY" THEN yt=yt-2:yb=yb+8
550 IF UPPER$(a$)="OY" THEN yt=yt+2:yb=yb-8
560 IF a$="ap" THEN GOSUB 720
570 dxt=xt:dxb=xb:dyt=yt:dyb=yb:GOSUB 620
580 IF twoplus THEN dxt=xt(1):dxb=xb(1):dyt=yt(1):dyb=yb(1):GOSUB 620
590 xt(1)=xt:yt(1)=yt:xb(1)=xb:yb(1)=yb
600 twoplus=-1
610 GOTO 500
620 MOVE x,y:DRAW dxt,dyt,3:MOVER -2,0:DRAW -dxt,dyt:MOVER -2,0:DRAW -x,y:DRAW -dxb,dyb:MOVER 2,0:DRAW dxb,dyb:MOVER 2,0:DRAW x,y :RETURN
630 STOP
640 WHILE x<999
650 READ x,y
660 IF x=999 THEN 680
670 IF x<0 THEN MOVE ABS(x)*side,y ELSE DRAW x*side,y,3
680 WEND
700 MOVE x,y:DEG:FOR n=1 TO 360 STEP 10:PLOTR 2*SIN(n),2*COS(n):NEXT n:RAD
720 apoint=apoint+1:|SPOUT,ap(apoint)+128:RETURN
730 |SPOUT,ap(apoint)+64


I then copied the games that were compatible with the SSA-1 to my M4 and tested it.

If you’d like info about setting up an M4 then checkout my blogs below:

First looks at the M4 board for Amstrad CPC

Adding ROMS to the M4 board

Video: Using an M4 board on an Amstrad CPC 464




Posted in Amstrad, M4 board, SSA-1 | Leave a comment